🫁 Kisik i Vaše tijelo pri treningu - VO2Max, SpO2, Zapremnina pluća

🫁 Oxygen and your body during training - VO2Max, SpO2, Lung capacity

Parts of oxygen use in the body

The volume of oxygen (O2) that a person can inhale and use is measured in several different contexts, and key parameters include:
1. Lung volume: It is the amount of air that the lungs can hold after a maximum inhalation. The measurement is usually done with a spirometer, a device that measures air flow and breathing volume.
2. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max): This is a measure of the maximum amount of oxygen the body can absorb and use during intense exercise. The measurement is usually taken during tests on a treadmill or bicycle.

Average values ​​vary among individuals, but a higher VO2 max usually indicates better sports performance and general fitness .

Increasing the volume of oxygen can be achieved by various methods:
* Aerobic training: Like running, swimming, cycling. These workouts improve cardiovascular health and increase lung capacity.
* Breathing exercises: Breathing techniques, such as deep breathing or controlled breathing, can improve lung capacity and breathing efficiency.
* Weight training: Strength of the muscles of the respiratory system can improve breathing and support better oxygenation of the body.
* HIIT (High Intensity Interval Training): This type of training can also improve VO2 max.

Oxygen volume values ​​by athlete type:
* Olympic athletes: They often have high VO2 max values.
* Amateur athletes: Their values ​​may vary depending on training.
* Non-athletes: They have lower average values ​​compared to active individuals.

A higher amount of oxygen has a positive impact on sports performance because it enables more efficient energy production in the body.

SpO2 (Saturation of Peripheral Oxygen)
SpO2 (Saturation of Peripheral Oxygen) : It is a measure of oxygen saturation in the blood, usually expressed as a percentage. It is measured using a pulse oximeter, a small device that is placed on the finger.

Lung volume measurements and oxygen testing are available, but accurate tests often involve special equipment and professional guidance. These tests are usually not standard in routine medical examinations, but are applied in a sports or medical environment when there is a need for precise measurements.

Lung volume with oxygen

A unit of measurement known as the "liter" (L) is used to measure the volume of the lungs with oxygen . Lung volume is expressed in liters of air that the lungs can hold.

Normal lung volume values ​​vary depending on an individual's age, gender, body composition and physical activity. There are reference values ​​that are used as guidelines, but it is important to note that these values ​​are general and that individual variation can be significant.

Lung volume testing is usually performed using a device known as a spirometer. There are different types of tests, and the most common ones include measuring vital lung capacity, total lung capacity, and the like.

Here are some key parameters that are often measured:
1. Vital capacity of the lungs (VC): It is a measure of the largest amount of air that an individual can exhale after a maximum inhalation.
2. Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1): It is a measure of the amount of air that an individual can exhale in the first one second after taking a maximum breath.
3. Total Lung Capacity (TLC): Total lung capacity, which includes vital capacity and residual volume (the volume of air remaining in the lungs after maximum exhalation).

The duration of the test can vary, but it usually takes a few minutes. The procedure includes the following steps:
1. Initial inhalation: The person inhales as deeply as he can.
2. Maximum exhalation: The person exhales as quickly and forcefully as possible, usually through a spirometer.
3. Measurement of results: The spirometer records various parameters, including vital capacity, FEV1 and the like.

These tests are usually performed by qualified medical personnel, such as physicians or respiratory therapy technicians. The results are then compared to normative values ​​to determine an individual's lung function.

Normal lung volume values

Normal values ​​for lung volume and blood oxygen saturation can vary depending on many factors, including age, gender, body composition, health status, and genetics. Also, it is important to note that being a top athlete does not necessarily mean having extremely high values ​​in these measures, because the abilities of the lungs and oxygen transport are complex and depend on several factors.
1. Lung volume:
* Normal lung volume (vital capacity) for an adult is approximately 3 to 5 liters.
* Olympians or professional athletes may have similar normal values, but some athletes, especially those whose discipline requires great endurance, may have slightly higher values.
2. Blood oxygen saturation (SpO2):
* Normal blood oxygen saturation in healthy people is between 95% and 100%.
* Olympians or professional athletes tend to have similar normal values.

Extremely high values ​​are not necessarily associated with better sports performance.
It should be noted that elite athletes often have high values ​​of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max), which is a measure of the body's efficiency in absorbing and using oxygen during intense physical activity. However, this value is not measured directly in liters, but is expressed in milliliters of oxygen per kilogram of body weight per minute (ml/kg/min).
Accurate lung volume and oxygen saturation measurements are usually performed in clinical settings or sports medicine centers using specialized equipment and skilled personnel.

VO2Max - maximum consumption of oxygen in the body

VO2 max (maximal oxygen consumption) represents the maximum amount of oxygen that the body can absorb, before reaching a threshold where additional increases in exercise intensity do not result in an increase in oxygen intake.

This is a key indicator of aerobic endurance and the ability of the heart, lungs and muscles to use oxygen efficiently.

Normal VO2 max values:
* Average values ​​for adult men range from 35 to 40 ml/kg/min.
* Average values ​​for adult women range from 27 to 31 ml/kg/min.

Top athletes, depending on the type of sport, can have significantly more value, for example, middle and long distance runners or cyclists.

How to increase VO2 max:
* Aerobic training: Regular moderate to high intensity training such as running, cycling or swimming can increase VO2 max.
* Interval training: Incorporating high-intensity interval training, where short periods of intense exercise alternate with recovery periods, has been shown to be effective.
* Weight training: Increasing muscle mass and strength can also have a positive effect on VO2 max.

Example of training to increase VO2 max:
* First week: 3 times a week, 30 minutes of moderate running.
* Second week: Add interval training, for example, 4x4 minutes of running faster than your usual pace with 3 minutes of easy jogging between intervals.
* Continue to adjust your workout, add more intervals, and increase your total workout time over several weeks.

Relationship between VO2 max, SpO2 and lung volume:
* VO2 max and SpO2: A high VO2 max usually indicates a high ability of the body to use oxygen. SpO2 (blood oxygen saturation) measures how well the body supplies tissues with oxygen. A high SpO2 often goes hand in hand with a high VO2 max.
* VO2 max and Lung Volume: Increased lung volume can support an increase in VO2 max, as larger lung capacities facilitate oxygen intake and transport. Training that strengthens the respiratory muscles can contribute to this increase.

Ultimately, these three components work together to support the body in efficient oxygen utilization during physical activity. Quality training can improve all these aspects and contribute to overall aerobic endurance. It is important to emphasize that individual differences play a key role, and the training program should be adapted to personal needs and conditions.

Note: It is important to always consult a professional, such as a physician, nutritionist, trainer or other qualified professional, before making decisions related to health, exercise and diet. We are all unique and individual needs, conditions and goals differ from person to person. Education by experts is essential for a safe and effective approach to maintaining health and achieving personal goals. Listening to your own body and regular consultations with professionals play a key role in long-term well-being.

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